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Südamerika/LändertabelleArtikel zum Thema Südamerika in der Wikipedia. kawpermaculture.com Südamerika ist mit einer Fläche von km² der viertgrößte Kontinent der. Am Südende des Kontinents findet man auch subpolares Klima, vor allem in Feuerland und auf den Falklandinseln. Kommunizieren[Bearbeiten]. In Südamerika. Tiere aus Südamerika. Bent u hier via een pagina in Wikipedia terechtgekomen? Pas dan de verwijzing naar deze doorverwijspagina aan, zodat toekomstige.
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Soon after, another Brazilian province proclaimed its independence leading to the Ragamuffin War which Brazil won.
Between and the War of the Confederation broke out between the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation and Chile , with the support of the Argentine Confederation.
The war was fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and ended with a Confederate defeat and the dissolution of the Confederacy and annexation of many territories by Argentina.
Meanwhile, the Argentine Civil Wars plagued Argentina since its independence. The conflict was mainly between those who defended the centralization of power in Buenos Aires and those who defended a confederation.
During this period it can be said that "there were two Argentines": the Argentine Confederation and the Argentine Republic.
At the same time the political instability in Uruguay led to the Uruguayan Civil War among the main political factions of the country. All this instability in the platine region interfered with the goals of other countries such as Brazil, which was soon forced to take sides.
In the Brazilian Empire , supporting the centralizing unitarians, and the Uruguayan government invaded Argentina and deposed the caudillo, Juan Manuel Rosas , who ruled the confederation with an iron hand.
Although the Platine War did not put an end to the political chaos and civil war in Argentina, it brought temporary peace to Uruguay where the Colorados faction won, supported by the Brazilian Empire , British Empire , French Empire and the Unitarian Party of Argentina.
Peace lasted only a short time: in the Uruguayan factions faced each other again in the Uruguayan War. The Blancos supported by Paraguay started to attack Brazilian and Argentine farmers near the borders.
The Empire made an initial attempt to settle the dispute between Blancos and Colorados without success. In , after a Brazilian ultimatum was refused, the imperial government declared that Brazil's military would begin reprisals.
Brazil declined to acknowledge a formal state of war, and, for most of its duration, the Uruguayan—Brazilian armed conflict was an undeclared war which led to the deposition of the Blancos and the rise of the pro-Brazilian Colorados to power again.
This angered the Paraguayan government, which even before the end of the war invaded Brazil, beginning the biggest and deadliest war in both South American and Latin American histories: the Paraguayan War.
His attempt to cross Argentinian territory without Argentinian approval led the pro-Brazilian Argentine government into the war.
The pro-Brazilian Uruguayan government showed its support by sending troops. In the three countries signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay.
At the beginning of the war, the Paraguayans took the lead with several victories, until the Triple Alliance organized to repel the invaders and fight effectively.
This was the second total war experience in the world after the American Civil War. It was deemed the greatest war effort in the history of all participating countries, taking almost 6 years and ending with the complete devastation of Paraguay.
The dictator Lopez was killed in battle and a new government was instituted in alliance with Brazil, which maintained occupation forces in the country until In the war began with Chilean troops occupying Bolivian ports, followed by Bolivia declaring war on Chile which activated an alliance treaty with Peru.
The Bolivians were completely defeated in and Lima was occupied in The peace was signed with Peru in while a truce was signed with Bolivia in Chile annexed territories of both countries leaving Bolivia with no path to the sea.
In the new century, as wars became less violent and less frequent, Brazil entered into a small conflict with Bolivia for the possession of the Acre, which was acquired by Brazil in In Brazil declared war on the Central Powers , joined the allied side in World War I and sent a small fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and some troops to be integrated with the British and French forces.
In the same year Paraguay declared war on Bolivia for possession of the Chaco, in a conflict that ended three years later with Paraguay's victory.
Between and Peru and Ecuador fought decisively for territories claimed by both that were annexed by Peru, usurping Ecuador's frontier with Brazil.
Also in this period the first naval battle of World War II was fought on the continent, in the River Plate , between British forces and German submarines.
Brazil sent naval and air forces to combat German and Italian submarines off the continent and throughout the South Atlantic, in addition to sending an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian Campaign.
A brief war was fought between Argentina and the UK in , following an Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands , which ended with an Argentine defeat.
The last international war to be fought on South American soil was the Cenepa War between Ecuador and the Peru along their mutual border.
Wars became less frequent in the 20th century, with Bolivia-Paraguay and Peru-Ecuador fighting the last inter-state wars.
Early in the 20th century, the three wealthiest South American countries engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race which began after the introduction of a new warship type, the " dreadnought ".
At one point, the Argentine government was spending a fifth of its entire yearly budget for just two dreadnoughts, a price that did not include later in-service costs, which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the initial purchase.
The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the s and s.
Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. Throughout the s and s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict.
In , Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands , a British dependent territory. The Falklands War began and 74 days later Argentine forces surrendered.
Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in with the creation of Marxist guerrillas FARC-EP and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist-leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords.
Many of these are now defunct, and only a small portion of the ELN remains, along with the stronger, though also greatly reduced, FARC. Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II , but since the s, a wave of democratization passed through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now.
International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century.
Historically, the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos. In the late 19th century, the most democratic countries were Brazil ,  [ full citation needed ] Chile , Argentina and Uruguay.
All South American countries are presidential republics with the exception of Suriname , a parliamentary republic. Also in the twentieth century, Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence.
Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community , thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world.
South America has a population of over million people. There are several areas of sparse demographics such as tropical forests , the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia.
On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans mainly Spaniards , Portuguese and Italians , Africans and Indigenous peoples.
There is a high percentage of mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place. There is also a minor population of Asians , [ further explanation needed ] especially in Brazil.
The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by French, English and Dutch in smaller numbers.
Spanish and Portuguese are the most spoken languages in South America, with approximately million speakers each. Spanish is the official language of most countries, along with other native languages in some countries.
Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Dutch is the official language of Suriname ; English is the official language of Guyana , although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country, including Portuguese , Chinese , Hindustani and several native languages.
At least three South American indigenous languages Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani are recognized along with Spanish as national languages.
German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country; among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of East Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival.
Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia.
There are also small clusters of Japanese -speakers in Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Crypto-Jews or Marranos , conversos , and Anusim were an important part of colonial life in Latin America.
Korean Confucianism is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism have spread throughout the continent.
Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries. Part of Religions in South America : . Genetic admixture occurs at very high levels in South America.
The native European population is also a significant element in most other former Portuguese colonies. People who identify as of primarily or totally European descent , or identify their phenotype as corresponding to such group, are more of a majority in Argentina,  and Uruguay  and more than half of the population of Chile South America is also home to one of the largest populations of Africans.
In many places indigenous people still practice a traditional lifestyle based on subsistence agriculture or as hunter-gatherers.
There are still some uncontacted tribes residing in the Amazon Rainforest. The most populous country in South America is Brazil with The second largest country is Colombia with a population of 49,, Argentina is the third most populous country with 44,, While Brazil, Argentina, and Colombia maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations.
These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and three of five in the Americas. Five of the top ten metropolitan areas are in Brazil.
Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within Brazil, Argentina is host to the second largest metropolitan area by population in South America: the Buenos Aires metropolitan region is above 13 million inhabitants.
South America has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. The top ten largest South American metropolitan areas by population as of , based on national census numbers from each country:.
Since , the continent has experienced remarkable growth and diversification in most economic sectors.
Most agricultural and livestock products are destined for the domestic market and local consumption. However, the export of agricultural products is essential for the balance of trade in most countries.
The main agrarian crops are export crops, such as soy and wheat. The production of staple foods such as vegetables, corn or beans is large, but focused on domestic consumption.
Livestock raising for meat exports is important in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Colombia. In tropical regions the most important crops are coffee , cocoa and bananas , mainly in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador.
Traditionally, the countries producing sugar for export are Peru, Guyana and Suriname, and in Brazil, sugar cane is also used to make ethanol.
On the coast of Peru, northeast and south of Brazil, cotton is grown. Fifty percent of the South American surface is covered by forests, but timber industries are small and directed to domestic markets.
In recent years, however, transnational companies have been settling in the Amazon to exploit noble timber destined for export. The Pacific coastal waters of South America are the most important for commercial fishing.
The anchovy catch reaches thousands of tons, and tuna is also abundant Peru is a major exporter. The capture of crustaceans is remarkable, particularly in northeastern Brazil and Chile.
In the tourism sector, a series of negotiations began in to promote tourism and increase air connections within the region.
Industries in South America began to take on the economies of the region from the s when the Great Depression in the United States and other countries of the world boosted industrial production in the continent.
From that period the region left the agricultural side behind and began to achieve high rates of economic growth that remained until the early s when they slowed due to political instabilities, economic crises and neoliberal policies.
Since the end of the economic crisis in Brazil and Argentina that occurred in the period from to , which has led to economic recession , rising unemployment and falling population income, the industrial and service sectors have been recovering rapidly.
All of South America after this period has been recovering and showing good signs of economic stability, with controlled inflation and exchange rates, continuous growth, a decrease in social inequality and unemployment—factors that favor industry.
The main industries are: electronics, textiles, food, automotive, metallurgy, aviation, naval, clothing, beverage, steel, tobacco, timber, chemical, among others.
The economic gap between the rich and poor in most South American nations is larger than on most other continents. The four countries with the strongest agriculture are Brazil , Argentina , Chile and Colombia.
Brazil is the world's largest exporter of chicken meat : 3. The country was the second largest producer of beef in , responsible for This year, the country produced In , Argentina was the 4th largest producer of beef in the world, with a production of 3 million tons behind only USA, Brazil and China.
Uruguay is also a major meat producer. In , it produced thousand tons of beef. In chicken meat production, Argentina ranks among the 15 largest producers in the world, and Peru and Colombia among the 20 biggest producers.
In beef production, Colombia is one of the 20 largest producers in the world. In honey production, Argentina ranks among the 5 largest producers in the world, and Brazil among the 15 largest.
In terms of production of cow's milk , Argentina ranks among the 20 largest producers in the world.
The World Bank annually lists the top manufacturing countries by total manufacturing value. Brazil has the third-largest manufacturing sector in the Americas.
Accounting for In the food industry , in , Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world. Chile contributes about a third of the world copper production.
In , Peru was the 2nd largest producer of silver and copper in the world, and the 6th largest producer of gold the 3 metals that generate the highest value , in addition to being the 3rd largest producer in the world of zinc and tin and 4th in lead.
Bolivia is the 5th largest producer of tin , the 7th largest producer of silver , and the 8th largest producer of zinc in the world  .
In the production of oil , Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in , with 2. Venezuela had a big drop in production after where it produced 2.
In the production of natural gas , in , Argentina produced bcf billion cubic feet , Venezuela , Brazil , Bolivia , Peru , Colombia In the beginning of , in the production of oil and natural gas , Brazil exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, for the first time.
In January this year, 3. Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers. Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio.
South America specializes in food processing. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest.
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world. Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca.
Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world. Hering , in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world.
General Motors plant in Rosario. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world. Sunflower plantation in Argentina.
The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed. Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. Tourism has increasingly become a significant source of income for many South American countries.
Historical relics, architectural and natural wonders, a diverse range of foods and culture, vibrant and colorful cities, and stunning landscapes attract millions of tourists every year to South America.
South Americans are culturally influenced by their indigenous peoples, the historic connection with the Iberian Peninsula and Africa, and waves of immigrants from around the globe.
South American nations have a rich variety of music. People on the Peruvian coast created the fine guitar and cajon duos or trios in the most mestizo mixed of South American rhythms such as the Marinera from Lima , the Tondero from Piura , the 19th century popular Creole Valse or Peruvian Valse, the soulful Arequipan Yaravi, and the early 20th century Paraguayan Guarania.
In the late 20th century, Spanish rock emerged by young hipsters influenced by British pop and American rock. Brazil has a Portuguese-language pop rock industry as well a great variety of other music genres.
In the central and western regions of Bolivia, Andean and folklore music like Diablada , Caporales and Morenada are the most representative of the country, which were originated by European, Aymara and Quechua influences.
Bahia , Brazil, is especially well known for its West African—influenced cuisine. The Paraguayan version, terere , differs from other forms of mate in that it is served cold.
Pisco is a liquor distilled from grapes in Peru and Chile. The Colombian Fernando Botero is one of the greatest exponents of painting and sculpture that continues still active and has been able to develop a recognizable style of his own.
A wide range of sports are played in the continent of South America, with football being the most popular overall, while baseball is the most popular in Venezuela.
Other sports include basketball , cycling , polo , volleyball , futsal , motorsports , rugby mostly in Argentina and Uruguay , handball , tennis , golf , field hockey , boxing and cricket.
Argentina and Uruguay have two titles each. So far four South American nations have hosted the tournament including the first edition in Uruguay The other three were Brazil , , Chile , and Argentina The first edition was held in La Paz in and the most recent took place in Santiago in South American Cricket Championship is an international limited-overs cricket tournament played since featuring national teams from South America and certain other invited sides including teams from North America, currently played annually but until was usually played every two seasons.
Due to the diversity of topography and pluviometric precipitation conditions, the region's water resources vary enormously in different areas.
In the Andes , navigation possibilities are limited, except for the Magdalena River, Lake Titicaca and the lakes of the southern regions of Chile and Argentina.
Irrigation is an important factor for agriculture from northwestern Peru to Patagonia. Most of the continent's energy is generated through hydroelectric power plants , but there is also an important share of thermoelectric and wind energy.
A few Indians had gone to Chile in the s. The others migrated there about 30 years ago [ when? The Hindu Community in Chile comprises more than members.
Among these, people 90 families lives in the Capital city Santiago. Most of the Hindus in Chile are Sindhis. The activities of businessmen in Santiago are mainly confined to imports and retail stores.
Hinduism in Colombia was mainly introduced with the arrival of Indians , especially Indian migrant workers from Trinidad and Tobago , Guyana , and Suriname.
Most of the Hindus in French Guiana are of Surinamese origin. According to the census 1. During the indenture period, the East Indian caste system broke down.
Hinduism was redefined, and caste-distinguishing practices were eliminated. Christian missionaries attempted to convert East Indians during the indenture period, beginning in , but met with little success.
The missionaries blamed the Brahmins for their failure: the Brahmins began administering spiritual rites to all Hindus regardless of caste once the Christian missionaries started proselytizing in the villages, hastening the breakdown of the caste system.
After the s, Hindu conversions to Christianity slowed because the status of Hinduism improved and the discrimination against Hindus diminished.
In areas where there are large percentage of Indo Guyanese residing together — Mandirs of various sizes can be found, according to the population.
Since the late s, reform movements caught the attention of many Guyanese Hindus. The most important, the Arya Samaj movement, arrived in Guyana in Arya Samaj doctrine rejects the idea of caste and the exclusive role of Brahmins as religious leaders.
The movement preaches monotheism and opposition to the use of images in worship as well as many traditional Hindu rituals.
Approximately between , and , identified themselves as Hindus in the census. In the census, it was estimated that about Hindus live in Paraguay.
They make up 0. Paraguay's ambassador to India, Mr Pappalardo, gave Punjab farmers a high opportunity to invest the country.
Later on, the community grew in number marginally until the early 80s, after which many of its members left due to the severe local economic crises and the prevailing terrorism.
Those with relatives in other Latin countries joined them. In the recent past, the size of the community has remained stable.
Most members of the local Indian community are Sindhis. They are reasonably well-off, but very few can be regarded as prosperous.
Their general level of education is low. Most of them speak only their mother tongue and Spanish, with a smattering of English. There is also here a small number of professionals from other parts of India.
Residence permits are not difficult to obtain in Peru. But citizenship is more complicated and only a small number of Indians have obtained it — not more than 10 out of a total of almost forty people.
While a few cultural activities are organized by the more enterprising people of Indian origin, in general they maintain a low profile.
Considering the vast distance that separates the community from India, its interest in its country of origin is limited to major events, mainly derived from occasional browsing on the internet.
But being invariably first generation migrants, many of them do occasionally visit India. Geomorphologische Erscheinungen sind Gletscherseen , Moränen und glaziale Abflussformen.
Das Klima Südamerikas ist ausgesprochen komplex. Der kalte Humboldtmeeresstrom bewirkt ein Abkühlen der Meeresoberfläche vor der Küste Perus und Nordchiles, was zu der Ausbildung von Küstenwüsten führt.
Dieses Phänomen beruht auf der Tatsache, dass die abgekühlte Luft zu einer konstanten Inversion , somit zu einem stabilen Hochdruckgebiet führt, das keine Konvektion und somit keinen Niederschlag zulässt.
Die Auswirkung sind ausgedehnte Wüstenregionen an den Küsten. Die äquatoriale Tropenlage bewirkt im Südwinter eine Ausbildung einer innertropischen Konvektionszone über der Zentralen Amazonasregion und führt zu starken Niederschlägen.
Im Sommer verlagert sie sich weiter nach Süden, somit sind die inneren Tropen durch ganzjährigen Niederschlag gekennzeichnet.
Ebenfalls im Sommer bildet sich ein kontinentales Hitzetief aus, welches sehr niederschlagsreich ist.
Die südlichen Randtropen sind somit durch Süd- Sommerniederschlag geprägt. Die nördlichen Randtropen sind durch Passatstau im Osten ganzjährig hoher Niederschlag und durch kühle Meereswasser an der Küste im Norden sehr geringer Niederschlag gekennzeichnet.
Die Südpassatwinde an der Ostküste führen zu erhöhten Niederschlägen in den Küstenregionen, im Südsommer geprägt durch die Ausbildung monsunaler Ostwinde und im Südwinter durch Stauniederschläge an den Küstenregionen.
Die zyklonalen Fronten variieren in ihrer Lage im Südsommer und Südwinter. Die Zyklonalen Fronten bilden an der Anden- Luvseite des patagonischen Gebirges heftige Stauniederschläge, welche als hypermaritim bezeichnet werden können.
Diese Stauniederschläge auf der Westseite führen dazu, dass die Anden- Leeseite Patagoniens durch Trockenheit gekennzeichnet ist.
Die Anden selbst haben eine weitere klimatische Unterteilung in der vertikalen Dimension. Des Weiteren sind in den Anden Vergletscherungen vorhanden.
In Patagonien gibt es eine ausgedehnte Inlandsvereisung und bis auf Meeresniveau hinunterreichende Zungengletscher. Als klimatische Folge hebt sich somit die normal vorherrschende stabile Hochdrucksituation auf und es kommt zu einer Umkehrung der Walker-Zirkulation mit schwerwiegenden Auswirkungen durch Starkniederschläge.
Zoogeographisch gesehen gehört Südamerika zur Neotropischen Region, die auch Mittelamerika und Westindien umfasst. Damals bildeten sich einmalige Säugetierformen heraus, die zum Teil noch heute für Südamerika charakteristisch sind.
Dazu zählen verschiedene Beuteltiere, die Gürteltiere , Ameisenbären und Faultiere. Darüber hinaus gelangten damals auch die Rüsseltiere und Pferde nach Südamerika, die jedoch im Zuge der Quartären Aussterbewelle am Ende des Pleistozän wieder verschwanden.
War Südamerika bis vor Nach herrschender Meinung zur Besiedlung Amerikas wurde der nördliche Kontinent um ca.
In Südamerika tauchen die ersten menschlichen Spuren zwischen Als älteste amerikanische Kultur gilt die Valdivia-Kultur in Ecuador im 4.
Jahrtausend v. Ab dem 2. Durch die Ankunft der spanischen Eroberer wurde das Inkareich zerschlagen. Der östliche Teil, das heutige Brasilien, wurde Portugal zugesprochen.
Panama und der Rest des Kontinents fielen an Spanien. Zahlreiche spanische und portugiesische Missionare kamen im Jahrhundert nach Südamerika und führten das Christentum ein.
Der Drang nach Unabhängigkeit nahm seitdem stetig zu. Im Süden erkämpfte sich Argentinien die Unabhängigkeit. Die Unabhängigkeit Ecuadors wurde in der Schlacht am Pichincha durchgesetzt.
Dezember Mit dieser Schlacht zogen sich die Spanier als politische Macht endgültig aus Südamerika zurück. In Brasilien nahm die Unabhängigkeitsbewegung einen etwas anderen Lauf.
Da das portugiesische Königshaus mit Hofstaat auf der Flucht vor Napoleon nach Brasilien flüchtete und damit die eigentliche Hauptstadt des portugiesischen Weltreiches von Lissabon nach Rio de Janeiro verlegt wurde, war Brasilien ab diesem Jahr faktisch und ab offiziell mit Portugal gleichgestellt.
Die Unabhängigkeit wurde endgültig vom portugiesischen Thronfolger Pedro ausgerufen und Brasilien wurde zu einer Monarchie.This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable kawpermaculture.comced material may be challenged and removed. October ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Säiten an der Kategorie "Wüsten a Südamerika" An dëser Kategorie ass just dës Säit. Dës Säit gouf de(n) Februar um Auer fir d'lescht geännert. Südamerika ass de südlechen Deel vun Amerika. Dëse Geographiesartikel iwwer Südamerika ass eréischt just eng kawpermaculture.com Dir méi iwwer dëst Theema wësst, sidd Dir häerzlech invitéiert, aus dëse puer Sätz e richtegen Artikel ze schreiwen.